Pumping Basics

how to breast pump

Getting the pumping basics down can be challenging especially if you are new to pumping.

Many moms come here to ask how to breast pump and where to start.

If you are a new mom, the added stress of figuring out how to breastfeed and care for a newborn adds a whole new layer to this.

Here you will find a complete guide on how to breast pump, including:

  1. How to start pumping
  2. What you need to pump
  3. How often you need to pump
  4. When to start pumping
  5. Resources to help you
  6. and much more!

learning how to breast pump doesn’t have to be difficult! You will find that once you get started and get the hang of it, it will become routine! Just like riding a bike… sort of… 

Pumping Basics: How to Breast Pump!

Whether you are new to breast pumping or not, there are a few basics to follow and a learning curve.

This first time I tried to pump, it felt…well, strange.

I had no idea what I was doing and if I was even doing it right.

So, here is a step by step guide to get you set up and pumping away!

Step 1 – Buy a Great Breast Pump

First, and most importantly, you need to have selected and purchased a breast pump and parts.  It is important you select a breast pump that best fits what you intend to use it for.

For example, some moms prefer a manual breast pump. But if you intend to pump multiple times a day, every day, this might not be the best choice for you.

If you need some guidance on how to find the right pump, click here to read my guide on choosing a breast pump.

You will likely be in need of a double, electric breast pump (like the Spectra S1). They are fast and easy to use. There are many brands and options to choose from so you should be able to find what works best for you.

Need help find a pump? Click here to see 6 of my favorites!


One of my favorite breast pumps: Spectra S1 

Step 2 – Get Stocked With Extra Pump Parts

Selecting a breast pump also means ensuring you have proper parts.

The parts for a breast pump are made up by the motor, plastic tubes that connect to the motor and the flanges, which are the plastic horn-looking pieces that fit your breast, and valves and membranes (though, exact pieces will vary by brand). 

medela common parts


Make Sure the Flanges/Breast Shields Fit

The breast pump flanges come in various sizes.

A set of standard size flanges (typically medium) is included with most breast pumps. To ensure a proper fit, you should hold the flange to your breast and take note of how your nipple sits in the opening.

Your nipple should have some room. If it is rubbing against the side of the flanges then you likely will need a larger size.

If your nipple appears to fit too far back from the opening of the flange, then you may need a smaller size. Incorrectly sized flanges can affect how much milk you pump so it’s important to ensure proper fitting.

Get Help if Needed

A lactation consultant can help you determine what size flange you need if you aren’t sure.

Have Spare Parts

Most pumps come with a set of the needed parts (tubing, flanges) to get started but there are parts that need replacement frequently as well as plenty of optional accessories that make the process much easier (did someone say hands-free pumping bra?!).

It can be tricky getting the right pump parts as not all parts (even if they are the same brand) fit each pump model. We have a pump parts page that lists by brand the common parts and accessories. It can be very confusing trying to find the right parts for your pump! 

Click here to see Medela Parts.

Click here to See Spectra Parts.

Click here to see Avent Parts.


Step 3 – Get Accessories!

Whether you intend on working and pumping, exclusively pumping, or just pumping for the occasional bottle, you will need a few accessories to make your life much easier.

Things like a hands-free pumping bra will allow you to pump without having to hold the flanges in place. This means you can multitask while pumping!

There are a number of other accessories to consider:

  1. Pump Bags – to haul your pump around
  2. Milk storage/freezer bags – if you plan to pump and store milk
  3. Pump and Feed Systems
  4. Cooler Bags, etc

You can see a complete list of suggested Pumping Accessories, here!

You can also see what I carry in my pump bag, here!


Step 4 – Ready, Set, Pump!

Okay, so now that you have selected a breast pump that best suits you, your nipples feel cozy in a proper fitting flange and you have all the accessories, next we move on to the good stuff- actually pumping!

Take Your Time Before Getting into Pumping

After your sweet bundle of joy is finally here you should take the first few weeks to focus on getting the hang of breastfeeding.

Both you and your baby will be learning how to breastfeed. This includes how to latch. Introducing a bottle too soon can disrupt this process and leave you with a very frustrated baby when put to the breast.

Moth Lactation Consultants will advise waiting until your baby is at least a month old and breastfeeding has been well established. 


Can I Pump To Ease Engorgement When My Milk Comes in?

Your milk should come in within a few days (you produce colostrum in the meantime to fit baby’s needs).

Once it does, your breasts may (more likely, WILL) be very engorged. Your body will regulate how much milk it makes over time but until then you are left with painfully, engorged breasts in most cases.

Many mothers take to pumping to help relieve the excess milk during this time.

Refrain from doing that unless you want to be a painful, 24-hour milk leaking mess! Pumping a small amount to take the edge off is okay every now and again but excessive pumping will only make things worse.

An oversupply can lead to a lot of issues including clogged milk ducts, mastitis, reflux in baby, excessive gas in baby, etc. It is best to allow your body to naturally regulate itself.

You have to think of breastfeeding (and, therefore, pumping) as a simple example of supply and demand.

A baby (or pump) suckling at the breast tells the mother’s body that more milk is needed to support the baby’s needs and as a result, you guessed it, more milk is produced. Lack of suckling, tells it that it is making too much and therefore, milk production will reduce.

So when your breasts are engorged and you pump continually to get relief, you just told your body that you have a litter of children to feed and to continue to make even more milk.

Not only will you continue to have an abundant (not to mention annoying) oversupply of milk but you may end up with the host of issues outlined above!

How to Relieve Engorgement?

You can do a few things to relieve the engorgement in those early days:

  1. Use a cold compress on your breast to help with the pain.
  2. Stand in the shower, allowing the warm water to flow over your breasts and hand express a small amount for relief.
  3. Pump – But only just until you feel some relief. No more than a minute or two. 
  4. Nurse on demand and DO NOT skip feedings or replace feedings with a bottle. This will cause your supply to eventually drop once it regulates. 

Again, pumping is not the best solution for early engorgement once your milk comes in but can help give you some relief if needed.

When is it Best to Start Pumping?

Again, you should wait to start pumping if you can once your baby is about a month old and breastfeeding and latch has been well established. 

How to Use a Breast Pump?

Using your breast pump for the first time can be very intimidating.

I would suggest you spend a moment reading through the user guide to learn more about your pump’s features.

You will also need to sanitize your breast pump part before you use them for the first time by boiling them in water for about 20 minutes. Your pump manual will tell you which parts do NOT need to be boiled.

This video from Aeroflow Breastpumps goes over the basics of sanitizing a breast pump, assembly, and how to operate it. The pump used in this video is the Medela Pump in Style starter but it gives you a good idea of how to get started. 

How to Start Pumping?

Now that your pump is sanitized and you know how to operate it. You are ready to start pumping. 

Start out by adding one pump session at the same time each day.

In the beginning, you likely won’t pump very much. This is because you are adding an additional “feeding” and your body needs time to adjust to make more milk.

Also, if your baby is still very small, they don’t drink a lot at each feeding.

Click here to read how much milk a breastfed baby needs.

So don’t be discouraged if it seems like you aren’t getting enough.

Keep at it and your body will respond. Starting to pump this way helps get you comfortable using the pump and practice makes perfect!

Click here for more tips on building a Freezer Stash!

How Often do I Pump?

Now that we have covered how to start pumping and how our body responds to supply and demand, let’s talk about how often you should pump. The honest answer is – it depends…

It depends on why you are pumping and what your goal is.

Pumping for the Occasional Bottle

The general rule to follow is that you should pump as often as your baby feeds. If you miss breastfeeding for any feedings (baby was given a bottle instead), then you need to replace that feeding by pumping.

Again, if you skip a feeding by not nursing or pumping, then you are telling your body that baby doesn’t need that feeding anymore and your supply will start to drop. Not ideal.

So, make sure to pump every time baby would typically nurse.

If you are wanting to have some milk set aside for the occasional bottle, then adding one pumping session a day should do the trick without overstimulating your milk supply. 

Pumping to Build a Freezer Stash and/or Returning to Work

Now, there are situations like preparing to return to work, where you may want to build a stash of milk to freeze. To accomplish this, it is best to add “feedings” daily at the same time of the day.

So for example, let’s say baby wakes up at 8 am each day. Try getting up at 6 am to pump and use that extra milk to freeze, then nurse baby when she wakes up as normal.

Then, if your baby goes to bed at 8 pm, pump again at 9 pm.

You’ve now added two additional feedings daily to freeze and start building a stash of milk.

See our Working & Pumping section on more tips and information on returning to work.

Want to Learn to Build a Freezer Stash? Click here!

Need a Sample Pumping Schedule? Click here!

How Long should I Pump? And how do I pump more breast milk?

One thing to consider before we get into this answer is that in general babies are much more efficient at pulling milk out of the breast than a pump is.

There is a difference in how long newborn nurses versus a 9-month-old, however.

As baby gets older, she will become even more efficient and nursing sessions will get shorter.

So the point is, don’t use how long your baby nurses as an indicator of how long you need to pump for.

A newborn could spend an hour or more at the breast at times and you certainly don’t want to be pumping for an hour! But they are VERY slow eaters and there are patterns in their nursing. They switch from expressing milk to comfort sucking, etc. 

Typically you should plan to pump for around 15-20 minutes each pumping session.

It’s best to pump at least that long but you can also pump until dry (meaning no more milk is flowing) if you are still pulling down a lot of milk after that time frame.

Your milk should “let down” after a few minutes of pumping.

What is a Milk Let Down and Why is it Important to Pumping?

When your baby begins to nurse, the nerves in your breasts send signals to release the milk in your milk ducts, this is referred to as your milk letting down.

You can hear the change in your baby’s swallowing after your milk lets down. They begin to swallow very quickly and more shallow. As the nursing session continues the milk flow slows and baby will be taking deeper swallows and drinking slightly slower.

You can use your pump to mimic this pattern to be more efficient during your pumping sessions. 

There are some pumps on the market that have a “let down” feature and follow this pattern automatically. But you can control it yourself if needed.

Pumps that Feature a “Letdown Mode”

  1. Medela Sonata
  2. Medela Freestyle
  3. Spectra S1
  4. Spectra S2
  5. Motif Duo
  6. Spectra 9
  7. Ardo Calypso
  8. Hygeia Enjoye

How to Control Pump Manually to Stimulate a Letdown Mode

In the beginning, use a faster speed with slightly lower suction to mimic a hungry baby, then after the initial milk let down, change the speed to a slower setting and the suction to a slightly more intense setting to mimic the deeper swallows of a baby.

Here is a visual of what your manual dials on your pump will look like (this is the Ameda Purely Yours):


To Start: Set the Speed HIGH and the Suction LOW


Then Set the Speed LOW and the Suction HIGH once your Milk has “Let Down”

But don’t think you need to practically have your nipples sucked off to get more milk. More intense suction does not equal more milk so take it easy!

Remember to pump for at least 20 minutes!

You should pump enough to replace what baby would have eaten at that feeding.

Step 5 – Keep Your Breast Milk Supply Up

There are a few key things that you can do to ensure a healthy supply of breast milk.

1 – Don’t Skip Feedings 

We covered this already, but do not skip feedings. That signals your body to produce less milk. Always pump in place of a missed nursing session. Skipping feedings is the #1 killer of a healthy supply!

2 – Eat a Balanced Diet  

Though you don’t need to get into counting calories, but if you are keeping a record, studies have shown that most women who took in 1800-2200 calories per day maintained an abundant milk supply.

Mothers with 1500-1800 calorie intake while breastfeeding, may have supply issues as well as mothers who have a sudden drop in calories like with dieting. But on average 300-500 is the number of extra calories needed while breastfeeding.

Need some tips on eating healthy while breastfeeding and more info about how many calories to eat? Click here!

3 – Reduce Stress stress-breastfeeding

Stress can certainly diminish your supply and cause a host of other issues within your body.

Try to find ways to reduce your stress.

Staying active is a great stress reducer! Look for Mommy and Me workout groups in your area for example. Great way to lower stress, improve your self-esteem, meet new mommy friends and spend time with your little Peanut!

4 – Natural Remedies –

There are many remedies on the market today that can help boost your milk supply. 

5 – Know Other Ways to Increase Your Supply –

If you do find yourself in need of a supply boost, there are many other ways to increase your supply.

You can read about 20 Proven Ways to Increase Yours Supply, here!

Step 6  -Don’t be Afraid to Get Support 

We have a fantastic section dedicated to common issues associated with breastfeeding and pumping. You can find it on the Pumping Issues page.

It is full of great information but if you ever find yourself unable to resolve an issue you are facing, then don’t be afraid to reach out to a professional in your area for help.

No two people, babies, bodies, or situations are the same. Always consult your doctor and ensure you get professional help if required.

Some great resources to find breastfeeding support are:

  1. La Leche League – They have peer counseling over the phone as well as support groups in most areas.
  2. Your Hospital – Typically while you are in the hospital after giving birth, a Lactation Consultant will visit you or at the very least will be available if you request one. We highly recommend that you do try to see one before you leave the hospital. They typically will give you information to take home on how to contact them once you are home should you have any questions or issues. Keep this information and use it! If you lost it or never received it, simply call your hospital and ask if they have a Lactation Consultant that you can speak with.
  3. ILCA- International Lactation Consultant Association – The ILCA site has a search feature to help you find private and hospital-based LC’s in your area.
  4. Breastfeeding Support Groups – A great way to get support is to join a breastfeeding peer support group in your area. Check with your cities website or other activity sites for local listings. Facebook is a great resource for this as well!

Want more information on Pumping & Breastfeeding? Here are some additional Pumping Basics Articles:


Benefits of Breastfeeding and Why it Matters


Breast Milk Storage Guidelines – Tips and More!


Exclusive Pumping – What is it and how to do it right










How Much Breast Milk Does Baby Need


How to Wean from the Pump


4 Reasons your Baby Reverse Cycles








Hopefully, you found this “back to basics” guide helpful! If you have any comments or questions, feel free to leave them here. We would love to hear from you!

Don’t forget to join us on our Facebook Page! Click here t0 “LIKE” our page! See you there!

Related Articles:


Sample Pumping Schedule – Find out how often to pump!

sarah wells-annie-breast-pump-bag

Stylish Pump Bag? Find out why this bag is one of my favorites!


Pump, Feed and Store all in the same bag! Find out how!

Pin it For Later!

Pumping Basics How to Breast Pump Want to learn the Pumping Basics? How to Breast Pump to build a proper milk supply and maintain a successful Breastfeeding relationship? Find out how! #PumpingBasics #HowtoBreastPump #BreastPumping #BreastMilkSupply




  1. Jocelyn McDonald says:

    My husband and I just had our first child, but now I’m having some trouble with my lactation and was considering trying a breast pump to help with this. You had some great advice for this on your article, and I liked how you said to consider speaking to a lactation consultant to help you figure out what kind of flange is best for you. I’m not sure about my flange size, so I’ll keep this in mind if I decide to try a breast pump.

    • Heather Grace says:

      Hi Jocelyn,

      A pump is definitely one of the best ways to help increase your milk supply. I highly suggest looking into getting one. If you haven’t already, you should check your benefits with your insurance company and see if they will provide you with a free pump. I used a company to do this for me last time and wrote a full review on it if you would like some help contacting your insurance company. This service is completely free.

      As for the flange size, most moms will find the standard size that comes with the pump to fit fine. But having pain or low output is a sign the flange may not be the correct fit. A lactation consultant is definitely the best resource to help you there. There are guides and videos on the internet but I still found those hard to tell if the flange was fitting correctly on myself. Keep in mind some pump come with several sizes so you can try them and see which works best. I hope this helps!!

  2. Meredith says:

    Heather, your site is extremely helpful, organized, and full of accurate information ! I am an LC and nurse in private practice helping mothers every day .. I always refer moms to your site for additional accurate online information .. there is only one thing I read that I wanted to comment on further. When discussing the flow of the nipple on bottles used to feed baby expressed milk , I suggest always sticking with the newborn or stage one nipple flow throughout the breast-feeding /pumping relationship.. Here’s why: as baby gets older if he is used to the stage one or slow flowing nipple, that nipple stage is the best choice to mimic flow at moms breast, so baby is less likely to become inpatient at breast due to the fact he is used to the slowest flow out of his artificial nipple when bottlefeeding, encouraging him to continue to suck effectively at breast..So moms, in my opinion, ALWAYS STICK WITH STAGE ONE/Slowest Flow 🙂 thank you Heather for all you do to help moms everywhere ! Please keep up the good work

    • Heather Grace says:

      Hi Meredith,
      Thank you so much for your support and for following me! I love that you took the time to drop this comment here. What a great piece of advice and something that we don’t always think of when bottle feeding! I always had a fast flow when breastfeeding but still, my babies choked and gulped at the bottle when first starting out. It’s easy to forget how much babies have to work to pull breastmilk down. Thank you so much for stopping by and helping to educate us! Take Care!

  3. James Bergman says:

    This is a lot of information to take in, but I think you did a great job going through it all. My wife has used a pump diligently for each of our children. I personally like it because it means that I can help with the feedings. I just didn’t know that there was so much that went into it.

    • Heather Grace says:

      There is certainly a lot that goes into pumping and breastfeeding. One of the main reasons a mom feels she “can’t breastfeed” is due to misinformation. Very few moms medically just cannot produce enough milk. But once you get the hang of it, it becomes second nature! One of my favorite things about pumping was giving my husband the chance to feed our baby and share that bond. I know it was special to him.

  4. Mimi-CU says:

    What a great topic for new mommies. This is one of the most important things to know when having a new baby and a topic most people overlook until the last minute, and the number one reason why people fail with nursing is not being informed, or prepared enough to carry though. Yours is a very interesting website, I am so glad you are providing much needed information to new moms! Thanks for sharing this post.

    • Heather Grace says:

      Thank you and you are right that lack of information can cause a mother to struggle with breastfeeding. I started this site because I felt there wasn’t enough information in place when I was looking. Thank you for your comment!

  5. Dan says:

    Very thorough and informative post. My wife has real issues not producing enough, I never knew there were certain foods that could help. You mentioned that too much pumping could increase the supply as the body thinks the demand is higher, is that what my wife should do then to produce more?

  6. Nate says:

    Hi Heather,

    Interesting stuff, my partner is pregnant with our first child so I’ll definitely be pointing her in the way of your site!

    Keep up the good work!

    • Heather Grace says:

      Congratulations! That is very exciting. I hope to see you both around here in the very near future. It is never too early to prepare! I hope my site can provide some information and support. Best wishes to you!

  7. Peggy Menke says:

    Hello, Heather. Great information about breast pumps. I’m 60+ now, but I have twin boys that were born in 1975. The doctor said I could only breast feed for 3 months, so I didn’t need a pump. But you have given really valuable information for new moms. great work!

    • Heather Grace says:

      Hi Peggy! Wow, you are a supermom to breastfeed twins! I am sure that was difficult. How wonderful you tried and were able those first 3 months. What a gift you gave them! Thank you for stopping by!

  8. Jason says:

    Hey Heather,

    You certainly know a lot about breastfeeding.

    My aunt just had her second child last month and she is having a bit of problem with breastfeeding. This article will surely help her out a lot.

    All I can say as a man is that women really are special. I could not imaging going through all that to get milk.

    I like your engaging writing style and I will be back for more information. I certainly will pass on this valuable information to my female friends and family.

    All the best to you Heather and thank you for providing this article.


    • Heather Grace says:

      Thank you, Jason. And I agree with you that women go through a lot to breastfeed and that’s after 9 months of growing a human! haha The female body is amazing and should be celebrated. I appreciate you passing along the information. I hope many women find support here!

  9. Jaime Camacho says:

    Hey Heather this is an amazing read. I have 2 beautiful daughters and my youngest is breastfed. When ever my wife and I want to go on dates she has to pump milk for my daughter for the sitter to give when were out. Thank you for giving me a heads up on freezing the milk and using it just how it would be on the babies normal feeding. Great read again!

  10. Uwais says:

    Am a single guy and no kids and found this article interesting. You write really well. Now I know a bit more about milk pumping from breast. And can recommend this article to many people.Keep up the excellent work.

  11. Jezza says:

    Hello Heather, I love your site and the tips on how you encourage moms to do breastfeeding. Breastfeeding provided many wonders and benefits to mom and babies. You have also provided a list where moms can get support too in facing breastfeeding challenges. I can vouch to say that breastfeeding is hard at first and getting a support system really means a lot. Thanks for sharing this information!

    • Heather Grace says:

      I know finding support can be the key to a struggling mom finding success so I am glad you found that useful as well. The resources are out there and sometimes it’s just knowing where to look!

      Thank you for your comment!

  12. Nancy Ritchotte says:

    You are a natural when it comes to writing. It really really a good post. I wish mine was half as good. I love it!

  13. dorina says:

    After reading this article I believe that I’m sufficiently prepared to give my daughter-in-law a lot of advices.Thanks!

  14. JeffWA says:

    Heather, all I can say is “wow” I was highly impressed reading this!!

    You certainly went out of your way to both research the topic, but also present it in such an informative and well-articulated manner which would engage readers who would be seeking more info on the subject.

    You have to understand that personally it would not apply to me (ha-ha) – still any young first-time mother would find your incredibly well-written article to be highly beneficial to them and allow them to learn how to breast feed their infant child that much more productively.

    All I can do is encourage you to write many, MANY more article on the subject! You have a very engaging writing style!


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